“Motivation is the term used to describe those processes, both instinctive and rational, by which people seek to satisfy the basic drives, perceived needs and personal goal, which trigger human behaviour”(Cole, 2004, P:119). Motivating workers is essential as it leads to job satisfaction, which is what many people try to achieve along with monetary gain and promotions. The human resources management process also motivates the workers to work for their organisation. Self motivation also arises from the workers striving to achieve their goals so as to get good recognition among fellow colleagues.
As said by Maslow in the hierarchy of needs such as,” Esteem needs-need for self respect, self esteem, and esteem of the others” helps in motivating themselves (Dale, 1978, P: 330). Elton Mayo derived a theory from his Human Relations School on how to motivate the workers and improve the output. This is known as the famous Hawthorne studies derived from the Hawthorne experiments (Mayo, 1920). But Taylor opposed Mayo’s theory. He said “man at work was largely an economic man; there for, he would work harder only if he could improve his position by doing to”.
If productivity of an organisation is increasing year by year it is not just because of the amount of motivation they get but also due to the new methods and machines involved in the production. There fore it can be said that productivity lies some where in between the two extremes. Leadership plays a very important role in people and organisational management. A leader is an inevitable part in the success of an organisation. A good leader is a good planner, a good organiser, a good controller and a good motivator.
According to the Situational theory, Jerkin stated that” Leadership is specific to the particular situation under investigation” (Dale, 1978, P: 316). A leader is one who can change according to the situation and make decisions according to that in an organisation. Northouse (2001) defines leadership as “a process where by an individual influences a group to achieve a common goal” (Morden, 2004, P: 200). The organisation culture is not constant and the approach changes day by day. To cope up with these changes, good leadership requires excellent understanding.
He should be able to influence and encourage subordinates to work. Basically every organisation is connected to the people through a leader. There fore the leaders use power to influence the people (Morden, 2004). Power is given by the people as a compliment for his leadership skills and can be taken away at any point in time. For example, in a construction site it is the project manager who is leading the whole construction work. It is the power of the project manager in the site that helps him to become a good leader.
To achieve a good understanding of the people and the organisational management and to develop and manage the work efficiently the manager has to have a good knowledge of all these principles and should be able to adapt it according to the situation. He should decide on the policies, procedures, team, distribution of work, way of communication, distribution of power based on the objective of the project. Key Challenges of the 21st Century: In the 21st century organisations has to adapt to the changes in accordance with the type of work. People have to be more empowered and they should also be given a bigger role in decision making.
There was a big influence of bureaucracy in organisations in the earlier days. All the works were distributed in a fixed way and jobs were done with a hierarchical approach. But in the post modern era the contingency theory has a huge role in organisations. “Contingency theory supported the contingency principle that action to take depending on the characteristics of the situation” (Bartol ; Martin, 1998, P: 58). Cole states that the development of organisations with a structure that permits flexibility has been one of the key issues for the last 35 years (Cole, 2004, P: 91).
Most of the organisations are confronting serious challenges due to the innovations and changes in the technology. They have to alter the strategies and the economic conditions in a regular basis. Companies that will survive and prosper are those whose managers can guide the process of change so that the organisation makes necessary adaptations in the face of altering conditions (Bartol ; Martin, 1998, P: 27). In the modern period organisations have to think at a more global perspective in order to satisfy their businesses, this is because globalisation occurs in all organisations, i. e. operating as a single company.
Decentralization is another important factor by which modern organisations adapt in the 21st century. It is the process of making optimum power among the employees in the lower levels. It can also lead to more employers having different responsibilities at different levels. Decentralization also influences autonomy among the people working in organisations. This broke the idea of keeping supervisors for people working to avoid their idleness and improve productivity. It also supported workers to organise themselves and analyse their responsibilities with out the pressure of higher officials.
All these theories are used in the modern organisations to achieve the required output. It’s not just the theories that help in the success of an organisation in this post modern era it is also the HRM and the interaction with the people working in the organisation that helps in building a better working place. It gives the positive energy and thinking among the workers to work for the success of the organisation. There fore the understanding of the ideas of the contingency theory, decentralization and the relationship with the people in the organisation helps in its success in this 21st century.