Tragic and enduring

She knows that Eddie does not want her to go to Catherine’s wedding and may get angry with her, but she loves her niece and wants to go. This stage direction is also used by Miller to create atmosphere and show just how much the Carbone’s marriage has broken down from how it was at the beginning, when the couple were comfortable and happy together. Beatrice does not want to upset Eddie and wants Catherine to stop shouting at him, she knows that Eddie will react badly to seeing Marco and so she wants to stop him from seeing himĀ ‘BEATRICE: (Quietly) Eddie.

Let’s go someplace. Come’ Beatrice is quite content during the end of act 1 but by the end of act 2, she has become fearful and when she eventually works out that Eddie wants Catherine she is desperate, weeping. She just wants Eddie to allow Catherine to go and for them to get back to normal. Beatrice never wanted the marriage to break down, she still loves Eddie and Eddie loves her, as is seen from his dying words, ‘EDDIE: My B.! ‘

This unrelenting, unchanging love added to the hatred and physical struggle of the men at the end of the play is interesting and dramatic and Eddies dying line is a conclusion of his emotional struggle through the play and winds down from the physical climax, leaving the play on an emotional one. Catherine’s attitude towards Eddie in this scene appears very aggressive. She is aggressive in what she says to Eddie and in what she says to her aunt about him. Catherine is also argumentative in the manner, in which she speaks to them both,

‘CATHERINE: (clearing from Beatrice) what’re you scared of? He’s a rat! He belongs in the sewer! ‘ We see in the way in which Arthur miller has written this scene that Catherine has lost all respect of Eddie, she is openly spiteful towards him. This change in Catherine is so very uncharacteristic, in comparison to what we have previously seen of Catherine’s manner towards Eddie that it is surprising and gripping and easily keeps the attention of the audience, thus this build up to the climax creates interest.

Arthur Miller intends the audience to be both surprised and shocked by the ending of this play. He wants them to think about the characters and their feelings and actions. Miller wants the play to provoke both thought and emotion by showing the raw personalities of his characters. This means that the audience are able to understand why the characters do and think things even if they cannot fully relate to them. It is partially this connection; between character and audience, that makes both of the climaxes exciting; it captures the interest of an audience.

Justice and injustice seem to be two vital concepts that Miller wants his audience to consider after watching this play because they are so very important to the outcome. The need for justice is the main thought that spurs Eddie on to take a knife out on Marco; it is also the reason that Marco turns the knife and finally kills Eddie. Eddie feels that he needs revenge on Marco because he ruined his reputation. Eddie was a respected member of the community but Marco wrecked this by telling people that he killed his children.

Eddie feels that Marco must be punished for this. Eddie feels that Marco telling people this was unjustified (even though Marco only did it because Eddie told the authorities that Marco and Rodolfo were illegal immigrants) when characters in this play feel that someone else is wronging them they are unhesitant to accuse and to bring around their idea of justice. When however they are thought to be in the wrong they do not like to admit this. Eddie in particular is like this and this constant movement of blame partly causes the events of this play to go so horribly wrong.

The audience may feel that to some extent everyone is to blame for the brutal ending of this play. Marco is to blame in part, because he aggravated the situation with Eddie through his accusations (though in many ways his accusations were justified). Eddie could be seen to blame for the tragic events since they all seem to stem from his extreme feelings for his niece (these made him jealous, and willing to do anything to get rid of Marco and Rodolfo even betray them).

Rodolfo is to blame for emotionally enflaming Eddie, we do not know but we can assume that without Rodolfo as a catalyst Eddies feelings would not have caused the chain of events leading to his own death. Even the women can be blamed in that Beatrice stands by Eddie throughout despite all he does and Catherine is impetuous in her breaking away from Eddie and her marriage to Rodolfo (however both of the women’s actions are only really down to their natures rather than specific actions). In summary, Arthur miller builds up to a climax at the end of each of the acts using dramatic tension.

The key to Arthur millers excellent build up of tension seems to be giving the audience slight insight into the future of the play so that they can guess as to potential events in the play, but never giving them too much so that the ending is spoilt. The portrayal of characters is very important to this; an audience must be able to understand the character’s viewpoints in order to empathise with them and this script is so multi-layered that this is done profoundly by Miller. There are also many turning points in the final scene of the play, these help to maintain the audience’s attention by keeping the scene progressing.

The techniques Miller uses are both subtle and dramatic so interest is sustained by variety. However, when each event is taken to the bone tension is the key; the audience would never be completely relaxed watching this play, there is always something making you a little unnerved. Be it a glance from a character or a physical statement; all of these are written by Miller in the script, it is really this level of detail which allows the play to portray a story such as it is, tragic and enduring.

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